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Supporting the scientific spirit of transparency, the Stowers Institute for Medical Research makes the data underlying its scientific publications freely accessible to the scientific community. Access to original, unprocessed data allows other scientists to validate and extend findings made by Stowers researchers.


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Nr6a1 controls Hox expression dynamics and is a master regulator of vertebrate trunk development.

Chang YC, Manent J, Schroeder J, Wong SFL, Hauswirth GM, Shylo NA, Moore EL, Achilleos A, Garside V, Polo JM, Trainor P, McGlinn E. Nat Commun. 2022;13:7766 doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-35303-4.

Deciphering the role of retinoic acid in hepatic patterning and induction in the mouse

Guertin TM, Palaria A, Mager J, Sandell LL, Trainor PA, Tremblay KD. Dev Biol. 2022;491:31-42.

Comparative development of limb musculature in phylogenetically and ecologically divergent lizards

Diaz RE, Jr., Taylor-Diaz EA, Trainor PA, Diogo R, Molnar JL. Dev Dyn. 2022:1576-1612.

Dynamic regulation and requirement for ribosomal RNA transcription during mammalian development

Falcon KT, Watt KEN, Dash S, Zhao R, Sakai D, Moore EL, Fitriasari S, Childers M, Sardiu ME, Swanson S, Tsuchiya D, Unruh J, Bugarinovic G, Li L, Shiang R, Achilleos A, Dixon J, Dixon MJ, Trainor PA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022;119:e2116974119 doi: 10.1073/pnas.2116974119.

Single-cell transcriptomics and gene-regulatory networks modulated by Wntless in mammalian midline facial formation and clefts

Gu R, Zhang S, Saha SK, Ji Y, Reynolds K, McMahon M, Sun B, Islam M, Trainor PA, Chen Y, Xu Y, Chai Y, Burkart-Waco D, Zhou CJ. [published ahead of print July 4 2022].  Development. 2022.

Nucleolin loss of function leads to aberrant Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling and craniofacial anomalies

Dash S, Trainor PA. [published ahead of print June 29 2022]. Development. 2022;149.

Retinoic Acid Deficiency Underlies the Etiology of Midfacial Defects

Wu Y, Kurosaka H, Wang Q, Inubushi T, Nakatsugawa K, Kikuchi M, Ohara H, Tsujimoto T, Natsuyama S, Shida Y, Sandell LL, Trainor PA, Yamashiro T. J Dent Res. 2022:220345211062049.

Synergistic role of retinoic acid signaling and Gata3 during primitive choanae formation

Kurosaka H, Mushiake J, Mithun S, Wu Y, Wang Q, Kikuchi M, Nakaya A, Yamamoto S, Inubushi T, Koga S, Sandell LL, Trainor P, Yamashiro T. Hum Mol Genet. 2021;30:2383-2392.

Ocular elongation and retraction in foveated reptiles

Rasys AM, Pau SH, Irwin KE, Luo S, Kim H, Wahle MA, Trainor PA, Menke DB, Lauderdale JD. Dev Dyn. 2021;250:1584-1599.

Branchiomeric Muscle Development Requires Proper Retinoic Acid Signaling

Wang Q, Xu L, Miura J, Saha MK, Uemura Y, Sandell LL, Trainor PA, Yamashiro T, Kurosaka H. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;9:596838. doi: 596810.593389/fcell.592021.596838.

Med23 Regulates Sox9 Expression during Craniofacial Development

Dash S, Bhatt S, Falcon KT, Sandell LL, Trainor PA. J Dent Res. 2021;100:406-414.

The Mediator subunit, Med23 is required for embryonic survival and regulation of canonical WNT signaling during cranial ganglia development

Dash S, Bhatt S, Sandell L, Seidel C, Ahn Y, Krumlauf R, Trainor P. Front Physiol. 2020;11:531933. doi: 531910.533389/fphys.532020.531933.

Pak1ip1 loss-of-function leads to cell cycle arrest, loss of neural crest cells, and craniofacial abnormalities

Panoutsopoulos AA, De Crescenzo A, Lee A, Lu AM, Ross AP, Yarov-Yarovoy V, Borodinsky L, Marcucio R, Trainor P, Zarbalis K. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020;8:510063. doi: 510010.513389/fcell.512020.510063.

Retinoic acid synthesis and autoregulation mediate zonal patterning of vestibular organs and inner ear morphogenesis

Ono K, Sandell LL, Trainor PA, Wu DK. Development. 2020;147:dev192070. doi: 192010.191242/dev.192070.

37/67-laminin receptor facilitates neural crest cell migration during enteric nervous system development

Fu M, Barlow-Anacker AJ, Kuruvilla KP, Bowlin GL, Seidel CW, Trainor PA, FASEB J. 2020;34:10931–10947.

Perturbed cranial neural crest cell development in association with reduced sonic hedgehog signaling underlies the pathogenesis of retinoic-acid-induced cleft palate

Wang Q, Kurosaka H, Kikuchi M, Nakaya A, Trainor PA, Yamashiro T. Dis Model Mech. 2019;12:dmm040279. doi: 040210.041242/dmm.040279.

The transcriptome of the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus): a resource for studying the evolution and development of vertebrates

Pinto BJ, Card DC, Castoe TA, Diaz RE, Jr., Nielsen SV, Trainor PA, Gamble T.  Dev Dyn. 2019;248:702-708.

Foxc2 is required for proper cardiac neural crest cell migration, outflow tract septation, and ventricle expansion

Inman KE, Caiaffa CD, Melton KR, Sandell LL, Achilleos A, Kume T, Trainor PA. Dev Dyn. 2018;247:1286-1296.

DAPI Staining of Whole-Mount Mouse Embryo or Fetal Organs

Sandell L, Inman K, Trainor P. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2018;2018:789-792.


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RNA Polymerases I and III in development and disease

Watt KE, Macintosh J, Bernard G, Trainor PA. [published ahead of print April 16 2022]. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2022.

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition during mammalian neural crest cell delamination

Zhao R, Trainor P. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition during mammalian neural crest cell delamination. [published ahead of print March 9 2022]. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2022.

Standardized Statement for the Ethical Use of Human Cadaveric Tissues in Anatomy Research Papers: Recommendations from Anatomical Journal Editors-in-Chief

Iwanaga J, Singh V, Takeda S, Ogeng'o J, Kim HJ, Morys J, Ravi KS, Ribatti D, Trainor PA, Sanudo JR, Apaydin N, Sharma A, Smith HF, Walocha JA, Hegazy AMS, Duparc F, Paulsen F, Del Sol M, Adds P, Louryan S, Fazan VPS, Boddeti RK, Tubbs RS. Clin Anat. 2022;35:526-528.

Live Imaging of the Dynamics of Mammalian Neural Crest Cell Migration

Moore EL, Trainor PA. Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2403:263-276.

Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage Modulate Cranial Neural Crest Cell Development and the Phenotype Variability of Craniofacial Disorders

Fitriasari S, Trainor PA. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;9:644410. doi: 644410.643389/fcell.642021.644410.

Acknowledging the use of human cadaveric tissues in research papers: Recommendations from anatomical journal editors.

Iwanaga J, Singh V, Ohtsuka A, Hwang Y, Kim HJ, Morys J, Ravi KS, Ribatti D, Trainor PA, Sanudo JR, Apaydin N, Sengul G, Albertine KH, Walocha JA, Loukas M, Duparc F, Paulsen F, Del Sol M, Adds P, Hegazy A, Tubbs RS. Clin Anat. 2021;34:2-4.

The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 42nd Annual Meeting

Eisenhoffer GT, Jr., Clouthier D, Cox T, Saint-Jeannet JP, Taneyhill LA, Trainor PA, Moody SA. Am J Med Genet A. 2020;182:1555-1561.

The development, patterning and evolution of neural crest cell differentiation into cartilage and bone

Dash S, Trainor P. Bone. 2020 Aug;137:115409. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2020.115409. 

Identifying vitamin A signaling by visualizing gene and protein activity, and by quantification of vitamin A metabolites

Shannon SR, Yu J, Defnet AE, Bongfeldt D, Moise AR, Kane MA, Trainor PA. Methods Enzymol. 2020;637:367-418.

Mouse embryo culture for the study of neural crest cells

Munoz WA, Trainor PA. Methods Mol Biol: Meiosis. 2019;1976:107-119.

The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 41st Annual Meeting

Taneyhill LA, Moody SA, Cox T, Klein OD, Marcucio R, Schneider RA, Trainor PA. Am J Med Genet A. 2019;179:864-869.

An integrative view of Lepidosaur cranial anatomy, development and diversification

Diaz Jr. RE, Trainor PA. In: Ziermann, D Jr., and Diogo, eds. Heads, Jaws and Muscles Anatomical, Functional and Developmental Diversity in Chordate Evolution, Springer; 2019:207-227.

Neural crest cells and their application in regenerative medicine

Trainor PA. In: N Antonio, and AR Ten Cate, eds. Ten Cate's Oral Histology - Development, Structure and Function. 9th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2018:21-22.

The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 40th Annual Meeting

Gammill L, Cox T, Moody S, Taneyhill L, Trainor P, Marcucio R. Am J Med Genet A.2018;176:1270-1273.

Developmental biology - more dynamic than ever!

Trainor PA. Dev Dyn.2018;247:8-9.

New insights and changing paradigms in the regulation of vitamin A metabolism in development.

Shannon SR, Moise AR, Trainor PA. WIREs Dev Biol 2017;6:e264. doi: 210.1002/wdev.1264.

Rare syndromes of the head and face: mandibulofacial and acrofacial dysostoses

Terrazas K, Dixon J, Trainor PA, Dixon MJ. WIREs Dev Biol. 2017;6:e263. doi: 210.1002/wdev.1263.

The society for craniofacial genetics and developmental biology 38th annual meeting

Taneyhill LA, Hoover-Fong J, Lozanoff S, Marcucio R, Richtsmeier JT, Trainor PA. Am J Med Genet A.2016;170:1732-1753.


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